Future Doctors - Future of Health Care


Artificial intelligence's (AI) transformative power is spreading across many industries, but in one—healthcare—its impact promises to be genuinely life-changing. Be it patient care or clinical research, drug development, insurance, or genomics. Ai is revolutionizing the health sector works to
cut costs and improve the delivery of medical services.

Investments in any particular field are indicative of its utility and the value it holds. The public and private sector combined have made considerable investments in healthcare AI: Investments in health care could reach $6.6 billion by 2021, claims analysts. Accenture, a multi portfolio IT firms have asserted that the top AI applications may result in annual savings of $150 billion by 2026. Already signs of medical dreams have begun to show up, following paras illustrate some of the fantastic applications of Modern technological tools and AI.



“Thibault, a 30-year-old paralyzed man, was able to move his limbs using a 'mind reading’ exoskeleton.” reports BBC. Though Thibault can move and walk, his movements are far from perfect. This experiment is currently limited to labs, but the future is not now when exoskeletons may be a reality in medical practices.

 “Last year, Atomwise announced that they found two drugs predicted by the company's AI technology, which may significantly reduce Ebola infectivity."  This analysis, using AI/ML, has cut down analysis time from years to just a day!

The latest developments in AI and ML, backed up by advancements in quantum computers, present a very promising picture of the future. Magical results, like above, are being reported every other day by medical journals and practitioners.

AI and ML have empowered new era doctors with immense computational capabilities as well have transformed the diaspora from manual to complete automation. The predictive techniques and deep level analysis deployed in intelligent algorithms provide incredible insight into the future.

The best uses of artificial intelligence in health care is its use in data mining, deployed for zettabytes of information in terms of medical records. The use of AI/ML for data mining saves unimaginable time and effort. Also, it offers multiple plausible alternatives. 


Recently, Google launched its Deepmind Health project for mining medical records to provide better and faster health services. The said project is in its pilot stage, and model studies are run in collaboration with the Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Model study aims to use the predictive capabilities of AI  to improve eye treatment. 

In another development, IBM Watson launched its clinical evidence-based treatment options for oncologists. Watson is said to analyze the meaning and context of structured and unstructured data in clinical reports, which are critical to selecting a treatment pathway. Further, it combines attributes from the patient’s file with clinical expertise, external research, and data.  Thus, using powerful predictive abilities of ML, Watson suggests potential treatment plans for a patient.

AI, coupled with next-gen Quantum computers, have provided un-imaginable computing speed, which is of paramount interest in the development of drugs. Developing pharmaceuticals through clinical trials sometimes may take more than a decade and costs billions of dollars. Converging the process faster and making more cost-effective will have an enormous effect on healthcare and how innovations reach everyday medicine. 

"If we can find a remedy for deadly viruses well ahead in time, then possibly we can avoid epidemics" said Alexander Levy, COO of Atomwise.

Artificial intelligence also plays a supportive role in genetics and genomics. Deep Genomics strives at identifying patterns in macro datasets of genetic information and medical records, looking for familiar patterns, mutations, and linkages to disease. The company is developing a new generation of computational technologies that can give doctors a vision into the future a cell when DNA is altered by genetic variation, whether natural or therapeutic. 

In line with developments in Genomics, Craig Venter, a Human Genome Project evangelist is developing an algorithm to design a patient’s physical characteristics based on their DNA. Human Longevity, Craig’s brainchild offers his patients complete genome sequencing coupled with a full-body scan and detailed medical check-up. The process helps to spot cancer or vascular diseases at a very early stage. 

While solving the intricate and erstwhile impossible tasks, AI has also spread across the customer's space. Now advancements are being made for online consultation, digital assistance, and remote supervision. An AI company, Sense.ly, has developed the world's first virtual nurse, Molly. It has a familiar appearance of a smiling, friendly face and a pleasant voice, and it is programmed to help people by monitoring their condition and treatment. The interface is based on machine learning to support patients with chronic conditions in doctor’s absence. It offers vetted, monitoring, and post-treatment care, with a focus on chronic diseases and suffering patients. 

Further, there is an App for monitoring patients in realtime to ensure that they are taking their medications as prescribed. The AiCure app, patronized by The National Institutes of Health, uses visual records obtained via webcam and AI to ensure that patients are adhering to their prescriptions autonomously. It is handy for people with severe medical conditions for patients who tend to forget doctor's advice and participants in clinical trials. 

“We don’t have enough labor to manage everyone’s health all the time with a doctor and a nurse,” Housman says. “So, we need this boost of artificial brains to be able to support people.” 
AI/ML could help overcome some of the critical challenges of health care. It  could save a lot of money spent on healthcare (the non-adherence problem), some could improve the efficiency of treatment (cheaper, more accurate, and more accessible diagnostics), some could help mitigate one of the direct threats to humankind's existence, like developments in Ebola drug.


The world remains enchanted with the capabilities of AI and ML and is enthusiastically investing in applications of technology in all the fields, especially health care. If the current trend of investments and R&D continues, then time is not far when breathtaking medical discoveries and treatments will dominate the news not from time to time, but several times a day. Possibilities are non-exhausting, and the future is bright. It is the right time when a common man should understand and embrace Artificial Intelligence.




Quantum Computing - Distrupting World



On 23rd of October, 2019 Google CEO, Mr. Sundar Pichai, announced "Quantum Supremacy." He said Google’s quantum computer carried out a specific calculation that is beyond the practical capabilities of regular, 'classical' machines. The same calculation would take even the best classical supercomputer 10,000 years to complete, Google estimates.


The race for Quantum Supremacy started way back in the 1980s, but it is only after 30 years that Google has published some encouraging results. "The practical benefits of Quantum computing is still a dream, till we can form a stable generation of Quantum computers" experts opined. "However, the present results declared by Google can be compared to the first rocket that successfully left Earth’s gravity to touch the edge of space” agreed researchers and contributors.

The latest rounds in investments have seen the tech industry's biggest names, including Microsoft, Intel, IBM, and Alibaba. They have been racing, collaborating, and competing for their share of the pie in the Quantum rush. Venture capitalists have poured in more than $450 million into start-ups exploring the technology, according to a recent study. Companies all across the globe are collaborating and working on the development of a stable fifth-generation computing machine. 

Though Quantum Computing space is dominated by biggies like Google, IBM, and likes, even Start-Ups are not much behind the race. But of course, the commercial use of the technology and hence its popularity amongst private players and VCs is not that visible at this stage. There are only a small number of Start-Ups in the industry that have been able to raise at least $50M (and fewer with over $100M), which suggests that commercial application of quantum computers. D-Wave is the most well-funded private quantum computing company with $210M raised to date, followed by Rigetti Computing ($119M), Silicon Quantum Computing ($66M), and Cambridge Quantum Computing (CQC) ($50M).

Along with company investments, the EU, US, Australian, and Chinese governments are also backing projects aimed at building quantum computers. "China is spending $400 million on a national quantum lab and has filed almost twice as many quantum patents as the United States in recent years. The US followed suit this year with its own National Quantum Initiative, promising to spend $1.2 billion on quantum research, including computers", reported wire. China's government launched the world's first quantum satellite in the quest for more secure communications in 2016.


Google is deploying its homegrown Quantum Computer, Sycamore, to Google Deep Mind, a platform dedicated to R&D in fields of AI and ML.

AT&T is aiming to build a quantum communications network. The firm has started building a quantum network hosted at Fermilab at Illinois, in collaboration with CALTECH and NASA.

IBM is aiming for a lead in commercial quantum computing space. It has launched "IBM Q System One", a 20 qubit Quantum Computer hosted on the cloud for commercial use.


“In time to come, wars will be fought for data supremacy and not land or gold ”


Applications:

The investment patterns and news of collaborative efforts between Governments and organizations like Google, Microsoft, IBM — clearly indicates the potential utility and disrupting nature of Quantum computing. It can change the world by solving problems that are impossible for contemporary computers.

Quantum computers will disrupt every industry and practically the whole world. Faster and probabilistic computations will change businesses and the security we have in place to safeguard data, how diseases are fought and invent new materials, and solve health and climate problems.

The top five fields which will be disrupted by Quantum computing are; Healthcare, weather forecast, BSFI, and Cyber Security.

Healthcare: A new drug development takes considerable time and costs millions. With conventional computing machines, a new drug discovery may take months or even a decade!

The drug discovery process involves the evaluation of interactions at the molecular level between proteins, molecules, and chemicals. Given the broad set of possible interactions, the evaluation process is tedious and time taking. It is one of these interactions, which will prove to be the best fit to cure a deadly disease.

Due to the non-binary and superimposing abilities of Quantum computers, they can analyze multiple molecule-protein-chemical interactions possibilities simultaneously. This significant increase in computational power may reduce drug discovery time from years to just a few hours.

Atomwise, an AI company, reported an encouraging and essential drug discovery for the Ebola virus. This process, which typically would have taken months or years, was completed in less than one day. Atomwise claims, "this technology could be immediately applied to other pathogens, like avian flu, measles, and drug-resistant tuberculosis."

Genome sequencing is another field that will be revolutionized by the advent of stable and viable large qubit Quantum computers. It determines the order and orientation of nucleiodes, building blocks of DNAs, which is essential for genetic profiling.

Weather Forecast: Meteorological investigations and forecasting involve zettabytes of data, including wind, humidity, pressure profiles, etc. This large data set takes huge time and computing prowess to analyze and predict. 

Conventional weather forecasting systems can cover 12-15 km of land area and updates every 6-12 hours. Computational limitations cause in-accuracy and hence losses in agricultural productivity.

In jan’2019, IBM launched a Global High-Resolution Atmospheric Forecasting System (GARF), which can provide accurate hourly weather predictions for a land area as small as 3 square Kilometers. GARF utilizes IBM supercomputers, following quantum algorithms, to analyze crowdsourced and in-flight from a massive IoT network of sensors.


BFSI: The financial market is full of possibilities and uncertainties, brining in assumptions and probabilities. An analyst is dependent on the accuracy and speed of algorithms that are evaluating thousands of possibilities market can behave and select portfolio can perform. Quantum computing can help eliminate ambiguity in data and prevent less probable assumptions from causing loses. Quantum computing particularly helps in solving complex optimization problems such as portfolio risk optimization and fraud detection.

Cyber Security: Quantum encryption is the need of the time, given significant transactions floating over wires. The success of a Blockchain primarily depends on its security, and quantum encryption brings that reliability in the system.

Quantum encryption is a process of sending entangled photons over long distances in what is known as Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for securing sensitive communications. Whenever a quantum encrypted communication undergoes unauthorized interception, the encryption scheme will flag immediate signs of disruption and declare lapse in security.

"We're at the dawn of this quantum computing age. We believe we're right on the cusp of providing capabilities you can't get with classical computing. In almost every discipline, you'll see these types of computers make this kind of impact." – Vern Brownell, CEO, D-Wave Systems